Plastic pipework is used for the conveyance of drinking water, waste water, chemicals, heating fluid and cooling fluids, foodstuffs, ultra-pure liquids, slurries, gases, compressed air and vacuum system applications. Plastic pipe systems fulfil a wide variety of service requirements.
Product standards for plastics pipe systems are prepared within the standards committee known as CEN/TC155.
An elbow is a pipe fitting installed between two lengths of pipe or tubing to allow a change of direction, usually a 90° or 45° angle, though 22.5° elbows are also made.
When the two ends differ in size, the fitting is called a reducing elbow or reducer elbow. Elbows are categorized based on various design features as below: Long Radius (LR) Elbows ? radius is 1.5 times the pipe diameter Short Radius (SR) Elbows ? radius is 1.0 times the pipe diameter 90 Degree Elbow ? where change in direction required is 90° 60 Degree Elbow ? where change in direction required is 60° 45 Degree Elbow ? where change in direction required is 45° A 90 degree elbow is also called a "90 bend" or "90 ell".
It is a fitting which is bent in such a way to produce 90 degree change in the direction of flow in the pipe.It is used to change the direction in piping and is also sometimes called a "quarter bend". A 90 degree elbow attaches readily to plastic, copper, cast iron, steel and lead.
It can also attach to rubber with stainless steel clamps.It is available in many materials like silicone, rubber compounds, galvanized steel, etc.
As recently as the late 19th century sewerage systems in some parts of the rapidly industrializing United Kingdom were so inadequate that water-borne diseases such as cholera and typhoid remained a risk. From as early as 1535 there were efforts to stop polluting the River Thames in London.Beginning with an Act passed that year that was to prohibit the dumping of excrement into the river. Leading up to the Industrial Revolution the River Thames was identified as being thick and black due to sewage, and it was even said that the river ?smells like death.?24 As Britain was the first country to industrialize, it was also the first to experience the disastrous consequences of major urbanisation and was the first to construct a modern sewerage system to mitigate the resultant unsanitary conditions.citation needed During the early 19th century, the River Thames was effectively an open sewer, leading to frequent outbreaks of cholera epidemics. Proposals to modernise the sewerage system had been made during 1856, but were neglected due to lack of funds.
However, after the Great Stink of 1858, Parliament realised the urgency of the problem and resolved to create a modern sewerage system.Źródło: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_water_supply_and_sanitation.